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A Brief Introduction to Piaget

A Brief Introduction to Piaget
Autor: Isaacs, Nathan
Vydavateľ: Agathon Press
Rok: 1972
Obal: hard
Počet strán: 121
Stav: 3/5
Cena: € 3.90

The Swiss psychologist and educator Jean Piaget (1896-1980) is famous for his learning theories based on identifiable stages in the development of children's intelligence. In studying children, particularly his own, Piaget found four stages of mental growth. These are a sensory-motor stage, from birth to age 2, when mental structures concentrate on concrete objects; a pre-operational stage, from age 2 to 7, when they learn symbols in language, fantasy, play, and dreams; a concrete operational stage, from age 7 to 11, when they master classification, relationships, numbers, and ways of reasoning about them; and a formal operational stage, from age 11, when they begin to master independent thought and other people's thinking. Piaget believed that children's concepts through at least the first three stages differ from those of adults and are based on actively exploring the environment rather than on language understanding. During these stages children learn naturally without punishment or reward. Piaget saw nature (heredity) and nurture (environment) as related and reciprocal, with neither absolute. He found children's notions about nature neither inherited nor learned but constructs of their mental structures and experiences. Mental growth takes place by integration, or learning higher ideas by assimilating lower-level ideas, and by substitution, or replacing initial explanations of an occurrence or idea with a more reasonable explanation. Children learn in stages in an upward spiral of understanding, with the same problems attacked and resolved more completely at each higher level. Piaget received honorary degrees from Oxford and Harvard universities and made many impressive guest appearances at conferences concerning childhood development and learning. He remained an elusive figure, though, preferring to avoid the spotlight. A quieter life allowed him to further develop his theories. This short and distinguished book is a distillation of some of Piaget's ideas. Isaacs, England's foremost Piaget exponent, translates these exciting but difficult theories into clear, readable essays.Two important essays by Nathan Isaacs-"The Growth of Understanding in the Young Child" and "New Light on Children's Ideas of Number"-are brought together here in an attempt to show the importance of Piaget's thought to educational practice. Isaacs shows clearly how learning according to the Piagetian model occurs. Emphasizing the continuity of growth, he deals with the problem of "knowledge" from both a psychological and a philosophical point of view.

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